The term social exclusion refers to “a process by which certain groups are systematically disadvantaged because they are discriminated against on the basis of their ethnicity, race, religion, sexual orientation, caste, descent, gender, age, disability, HIV status, migrant status or where they live”. In public institutions, discrimination generally occurs among the community members with oppression, ethnic minorities, gender based evidences, stigmatization, etc. These inequalities are apparently observed in education and health services, legal system, social institutions, and even households. According to the Sen’s capability approach, social exclusion can be demonstrated on the basis of ‘functioning’ and ‘capabilities’. The former refers to the possessions acquired or done by an individual in leading a life, for instance contributing in community life, having self-respect, being educated, having a good physical health, etc. However, the later one denotes the mixtures of various functioning that permit the person to lead a deserved and valued life. Therefore, the social exclusion is referred to be a leading process toward a more difficult state for susceptible groups as well as individuals which consequently obstruct the accomplishment of functioning.
This impracticality of functioning will eventually lead to the condition of deprivation, which results in social exclusion of the individual from the community. The social exclusion is a rather multidimensional phenomenon that involves a lack of access to political voice, legal markets and redress, employment, poor social relationships in the community. However, the research to examine these complexities still remains debatable among the sociologist. The disputed term of social exclusion is referred to be extracted by the insufficient definitions of poverty that involve the key factors, for example lack of physical, cultural and social resources. The same factors can be added to the perspectives of poverty, since it involves the same perceptions. In demonstrating the feminist ideas, Mary Rogers defines oppression as “an experiential notion” and referred to “how people in the lower reaches of social hierarchies react over time by way of their identities and emotions”; and a measure of “the toil of social hierarchies and systems of domination on the more dominated”.
Oppression In Social Perspectives
The oppression in social perspectives is considered as man-made dominations and strengths conformism towards the social norms. In this case, the term oppression indicates a debate between perspectives and opposing interests. The intensity of oppression may be analyzed by the comparison of strengths of dominator and the dominated. However, while fighting for their rights in the society, the dominated one often succeed over dominator.