Existing literature reveals there is no universally accepted definition for training and development. Like other HR practices that are easy to discuss but complex in nature as it is difficult to define the topic in concise and concrete manner. Training and development have been studied by the researchers in different perspectives as the researchers use terms such as human resource development and learning and development to signify the same practice. Training and development within the field of human resource management as “the set of organizational activities that tend to improve the performance of the employees”. Training means the acquisition of the knowledge and skills that are relevant to the job of the employees while development means growth of the individual in terms of capabilities required for the employment. Development has a much broader focus on learning as it involves not the only job itself but also the career. Development puts more emphasis on the employees’ potential in order to build the capabilities. It is very important not to confuse the definitions of the two variables that have made researchers define training and development as the ability of the organization to develop the skills and gain the knowledge that is required for the present as well as a future job.
Training is the content-based activity that aims to change the attitude of an individual by the involvement of the instructor. Training is highly beneficial for motivating the employees. Also, it is beneficial for the employer as it promotes the commitment of employees and adds to the human capital positively. At the same time, theorists working on behavioral learning find no general constructs on increasing organizational commitment from employees’ point of view.
Training and development of employees are one of the main tasks of human resource management and often a business strategic objective. Developing the skills and ability of an employee is not only beneficial for the employee but also the overall organizational performance. Hence, organizations know the significance of well-trained employees and the influence it can offer to the success of the firm and profitability. In the 21st Century business, large firms are increasingly giving importance to training and development programs for their growth in the highly competitive business world.
Training and development of employees offer companies the availability of skills and knowledge which is necessary to attain the organizational objectives and to build a competitive edge. Additionally, effective training and development of employees can offer organizations variety of benefits, such as reduced turnover, less time on supervision and certainly improve employee morale all sorts of company. However, small business owners are behind in this area compared to larger organizations that often have a well-developed human resource department that takes care of this. Inadequate managerial competencies are often the main cause of small business failure.